Luke 16:23 footnote from the Scofield 1917 Reference
Bible (pages 1098, 1099)|
Gr. hades, "the unseen world," is
revealed as the place of departed human spirits between death and resurrection.
The word occurs, Mt 11:23; 16:18; Lu 10:15;
Ac 2:27,31; Re 1:18; 6:8; 20:13-14
and is the equivalent of the O.T. "sheol." Cmt. on Hab 2:5. The
Septuagint invariably renders sheol by hades.
(1) Hades before the ascension of Christ. The
passages in which the word occurs make it clear that hades was formerly in two
divisions, the abodes respectively of the saved and of the lost. The former was
called "paradise" and "Abraham's bosom." Both designations were Talmudic, but
adopted by Christ in Lu 16:22; 23:43. The blessed dead were
with Abraham, they were conscious and were "comforted" Lu 16:25.
The believing malefactor was to be, that day, with Christ in "paradise." The
lost were separated from the saved by a "great gulf fixed" Lu 16:26.
The representative man of the lost who are now in
hades is the rich man of Lu 16:19-31. He was alive, conscious, in
the full exercise of his faculties, memory, etc., and in torment.
(2) Hades since the ascension of Christ. So far
as the unsaved dead are concerned, no change of their place or condition is
revealed in Scripture. At the judgment of the great white throne, hades will
give them up, they will be judged, and will pass into the lake of fire Re
20:13-14. But a change has taken place which affects paradise. Paul was
"caught up to the third heaven. . .into paradise" 2Co 12:1-4.
Paradise, therefore, is now in the immediate presence of God. It is believed
that Eph 4:8-10 indicates the time of the change. "When he
ascended up on high he led a multitude of captives." It is immediately added
that He had previously "descended first into the lower parts of the earth," i.e.
the paradise division of Hades. During the present church-age the saved who died
are "absent from the body, at home with the Lord." The wicked dead in hades, and
the righteous dead "at home with the Lord," alike await the resurrection
Job 19:25; 1Co 15:52. Cmt. on Mt 5:22.
Darby and Scofield on Hades
Darby Version: Doctrinal Changes to the Bible